Slip & Fall Hazards

   Slip and fall accidents however bizarre may be more common than car accidents. “According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, every year about 235,000 people over age 15 visit emergency rooms because of injuries suffered in the bathroom, and almost 14 percent are hospitalized. More than a third of the injuries happen while bathing or showering. More than 14 percent occur while using the toilet“. Research statistics also indicate that slip and fall on sidewalks due to snow and black ice buildup, as well as kitchen accidents, are more common than one might think!

   Sidewalks are more prone to slip and fall accidents than the slippery conditions created for vehicles by black ice on roads that result in tire skids. Sidewalks that are not properly cleaned of snow not only result in to slip and fall accidents but also lawsuits. These lawsuits are often directed by victims towards owners of properties that failed to shovel the sidewalks creating hazardous conditions. Black ice on the drive way or patio stairs also leads to slip and fall accidents. These areas of the property are usually spread with salt to avoid black ice from developing in extreme weather. Should ice formation be evident despite the use of salt, one may try using metal shovels or similar consumer products to break this dangerous ice formation! Snow blowers and heated driveways are often regarded as solutions to the problem. Also, consumer products like heft attached to a snow shovel make shoveling easy without resulting in to back pain problems and efficient snow cleanup. For the slip and fall victims, properly tied shoelaces with shoelace beads as well as shoe spikes may stop the catastrophe. Shoes and other footwear must also be scraped clean to avoid bringing water inside a house or building. Shoe hangers instead of shoe racks can help keep track of water spills and create less mud and mess inside a residential or commercial structure!

   Slip and fall accidents are also evident in washrooms. Many accidents occur near bathtubs, sinks, and toilets where water on the floor or tiles is often overlooked. Controlling the water pressure from shower caps also means controlling the water that falls outside the bathtub.  Water may also accumulate in the bathtub as a result of hair accumulation near the drain of a missing bathtub drain cover. A tightly sealed drain cover or a malfunctioning drain cover lift mechanism might be raised with a ruler to avoid water accumulation in the bathtub. This water usually results in a slip and fall accident as soon as one climbs out of the shower. Bathtub injuries are often due to excess soap foam in the bathtub. This build-up can be prevented by using a properly installed soap stand. Shower drains are also culprits in these sip and fall disasters! An unlevelled shower drain due to replenishment of grout leads to dangerous metal edges of the drain exposed. Metal shower drains are also more slippery than some other consumer products available in the market. Shower curtain clips that do not hold the curtains as they fill up with water in a tub may result in water spills! These curtains easily come off the clips and spread water all over the washroom floors. that easily come off the Also, a bathtub handle may stop slip and fall in the tub. Other than bathtubs and shower areas, washroom sinks and countertops are also culprits in slip and fall accidents! A malfunctioning lift mechanism for washroom sink drain cover may lead to water accumulation and water spills on the floor eventually leading to accidents. Foam buildup from shaving cups or soaps on countertops also leads to accidents. A soap stand on washroom sinks especially in hotels and motels will not only prevent slip and fall as a result of excess foam buildup on and around the sink counter top but also reduce countertop damage caused by excess foam and water which result into thousands of dollars in replacement costs.

   Slip and fall accidents are evident in the kitchen. In the kitchen, sink faucet pressure is often an essential element in controlling water spills on the floor. This pressure may be controlled via changes in aerator design that lead to fewer water spills during a dishwashing session. Sink drain stoppers may also hold a key in fewer water spills on the kitchen countertop and floor leading to slip and fall accidents. Some sink drain stoppers are not only a hazard to slip and fall but a hazard to fingers due to the use of wire mesh that breaks from time to time. If these wire meshes are not replaced, they also result in to drain clogs and pipe clogs leading to thousands of dollars in replacements and plumbing labor expense!

   In conclusion, hazards from snow, ice, and water lead to accidents that can be avoided. One of the ways to successfully combat accidents and statistics is prevention! For example, preventing ice dams on roofs with an ice dam cable may save consumers roof damage and replacement costs that are in the thousands since roofs are the biggest investment in a residential structure. Preventing ice from forming on vehicle windshield may also help reduce gas usage and vehicle heating time!

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Depreciation: Auto and Real Estate

    Depreciation can be defined as the decrease in an object’s value over a period of time. This lower value of an object, product or an asset may have many causes. One of the basic cause is the wearing out of an asset over a period of time. Another cause of depreciation is the result of the advances in science and technology that lead to the asset or product obsolescence. Other than land, most if not all products and assets go through depreciation. The methods for depreciation are usually either in the form of straight line depreciation or declining balance depreciation. These forms of depreciation are more evident in auto, properties, and equipment.

   Auto depreciation is one of the most noticeable forms of depreciation. In a car or vehicle depreciation, the overall useful life of the car is calculated through annual depreciation based on car make, model, and mileage. The longer the duration of the car being driven on the road and increase the total mileage, the higher the depreciation expense. Even if the car sits in the garage mint in condition, it still depreciates as a result of advances in science an technology leading to new advanced vehicles. The condition of the vehicle also affects the depreciation value of the vehicle. Most vehicles involved in accidents usually have a higher depreciation and insurance coverage even when restored to the brand new condition by auto dealers. Other factors like maintenance of the vehicle, safety, aesthetics as well as custom additions to the vehicle might contribute to or bring down the value of depreciation. For example, reupholstered leather car seats in a used vehicle will bring down the depreciation expense and increase the new vehicle value. Depreciation is proven to be the largest ownership cost over time. Auto depreciation is calculated in the form of straight line depreciation. To calculate the auto depreciation expense, one must know the residual or salvage value of the vehicle at the end of its useful life as well as the total useful life of the vehicle. This salvage value is subtracted from its original cost price and then divided by its total useful life. If calculating depreciation through mileage, the original cost, depreciation factor per mile, as well as the total mileage was driven, are all considered. Many vehicles with longer useful life have more mileage on them with less depreciation expense. This depreciation factor also affects the retail price of the vehicle whether new or used as well as Insurance coverage. Though some antique vehicles (preserved) retain high value as consumer demand increases, road cars, in general, depreciate value even though the customer demand for that vehicle might be increasing. These antique cars are usually a topic for road shows, car racing, television shows etc which means they are less driven on the road but more on display. Vehicles in general also depreciate value as a result of corrosion. Door frames, power windows, and doors, hood latch, License plate bolts, trunk, auto parts are all subject to corrosion. Hence, cars especially racing cars are often fitted in with anti-corrosive parts. Strong permanent odors in a vehicle as a result of low maintenance and aging interiors can also be a result of depreciated car value. This is especially true of used cars. For example, a used car with a strong odor in mats or upholstery may bring the value of the vehicle significantly down. A strong odor usually means the car interior has to be treated with chemicals as well as re-upholstered preferably with leather seats hence the retail vehicle value of that used car is diminished. Irregular oil changes and low maintenance leading to engine abuse also contribute to car depreciation.  Hence, auto depreciation is a major depreciation expense and ownership cost.

   Property depreciation is resulting due to a number of factors. Some of the factors when considering real estate values are “Sustainable Sites, Water Efficiency, Energy and Atmosphere, Materials and resources, Indoor environmental quality, design innovations and regional priority (1).” Selecting sites that increase pollution with construction activity or sites that are inappropriate for development lead to property depreciation. Property constructed on soil with poor surface drainage qualities will result in basement and foundation floods which not only bring down the value of the property but severely risk damage and casualties. Buildings and structures built on low load bearing soil capacity and soil shearing strength mean there is limited room for structure expansion and hence lead to structure depreciation. Buildings and structures with limited availability of “utilities: water mains, sanitary and storm sewers, gas lines, electrical power lines, telephone and cable lines as well as fire hydrants” (1) all lead to structure depreciation. Limited access to public roadways and transit stops also lead to structure depreciation. Buildings and sites that are inefficient in acquiring and using energy also lead to property depreciation. Heating cooling and lighting of structures that lead to inefficient energy consumption and use translate into high utility and maintenance bills. For example, duct cleaning, as well as heat and hydro bills that increase over a period of time with property’s age, will lead to property depreciation.   Poor indoor air and light ventilation quality and improperly installed thermal comfort systems like spray foam insulation that lead to hazardous strong odor and high replacement costs for lumber and other building materials lead to property depreciation.  Usually, properties whether the residential or commercial increase in value due to high demand. This demand grows as the accessibility to amenities like school, colleges, hospitals and shopping centers gets better. The growth of population and development of the area increase the real estate value. Renovating the property also increases the real estate market value of the property. However, faulty construction, maintenance or renovation blunders may also lead to decrease in the value of the property. For example, a property constructed on loose foundation or sinkholes will lead to a depreciation of the property as it slowly develops cracks and decay. Many properties that exist on sinkholes often lose all their value as no investor is going to risk his investment and life on a property that will eventually sink beneath the ground surface! When properties are constructed without caissons and proper building materials on land prone to earthquakes, they lose their value over a period of time. The depreciation expense, in this case, is usually directly related to the amount of damage done by natural disasters as well as the overall condition of the property. Retaining walls example concrete retaining walls at basement level constructed to reduce soil lateral pressure may or may not depreciate property value based on soil quality and structure load. Construction that does not follow changed fire and safety codes may impose lawsuits and depreciate property value.  Improper ventilated roofs and crawl spaces also add to the depreciation of the property. Since “the ventilation of concealed roof and crawl spaces is required to remove moisture, control condensation” as well as reduce fungus and strong odors, depreciation occurs if these conditions are not met! The Absence of windbreaks in areas with high wind velocity and less privacy reduce property value.  In tornado-prone areas, “the structure, components, and cladding of a building must be anchored to resist wind-induced overturning, uplift and sliding”(1). Though accessibility to airports and roads increase the real estate value, noise from airports or highways near to a property will depreciate the value of the property as the population and noise level increase. Inaccessible parking spaces on a structure or unavailability of parking spaces for vehicles used by persons with disabilities may depreciate structure or building value even more. Hence, property depreciation result due to many factors.

   In conclusion, many reasons contribute to depreciation of auto and real estate. However proper maintenance of vehicles, anti-corrosive parts and other vehicle modifications will reduce depreciation and retain car value for auto trader market. Regular waxing and car paint upgrade will generally retain the shine of a used vehicle. Regular vacuuming and using air-fresheners  on interior vehicle mats and seats usually help fight bad odors and so on. It also means car seats do not need to be reupholstered again and again either as a result of blade cuts or cigarette ash. Fluid maintenance is another key factor to vehicle maintenance. Maintenance using regular oil change, engine fluid, coolant liquids and windshield wiper liquid is often regarded as a key factor in reducing engine and car depreciation. Many avoid buying vehicles involved in a collision due to their diminished value and high insurance. But if one is to buy a  restored vehicle from a collision, auto experts recommend buying insurance policies that cover the entire value of the vehicle rather than couple grand less. Vehicle parts modification and adding an emblems made of precious metals might also increase the value of the vehicle depending on the precious metal charts in stock market. Using apps and notes on vehicle mileage and maintenance may also reduce car depreciation. In terms of property value, waterproofing properties start with selecting sites with low slope elevations. Landscaping property perimeters with gravel and drains may reduce chances of basement flooding and retain real estate value. “Sheet piling” near concrete retaining walls at basement level may also help in stopping basement floods. “Resistance to lateral wind or earthquake forces requires the use of shear walls, diagonal bracing or rigid framing with moment resisting connections”(1). Exterior masonry walls if any “must be weather resistant and control heat flow. Water penetration must be controlled through the use of tooled joints, cavity spaces, flashing and caulking” (1). Construction that follows new building codes and fire safety codes is less likely to create legal issues and diminish value of a property that might need complete reconstruction otherwise. Interior design also plays a key role. Designing floor plans according to the growing consumer market and market trends increase real estate value. For example, floor plans that have walk-in basements are more friendly to person’s with disabilities. Staircase railings that may be used for chair lifts by person’s with disabilities may also increase real estate value. Wide staircases that allow easy moving of furniture, appliances, and equipment without wall and property damage may increase real estate value. Laminate and hardwood flooring that reflect wall paint may be a positive factor to consider in renovation. Wall paints and primer with fireproof coatings for wall, ceilings and outdoor deck may reduce fire flammability from barbecues, kitchen appliances, iron press or even cigarettes. Washrooms with bidets installed during renovations may increase property value as they are sewage/drain friendly as well as accommodate person’s with disabilities. Properly installed high quality curtains that prevent the need of replacement due to elevation faults will avoid wall scars as well as repaint jobs which in turn will maintain property value. Secured towel rod hangers and other types of wall hangers prevent wall damage as they come off. Security systems and smoke alarms in basement also increase property value due to decreased chances of fire and burglary. Concrete lawns and backyards which saves time on lawn mowing and gardening may increase property value based on consumer demand. Overall, depreciation is and will be a major concern in both auto and real estate market. Knowledge could be a good startup point for combating depreciation.

(1) – Francis D.K. Ching. “Building Construction Illustrated”. 2014. Published by Wiley.

Mathematics – “A Discovered Part Of Universe” OR “Human Invention”?

    Scientists have successfully landed a car-sized rover on Mars with the help of science and technology. Science, Technology, and Engineering have transformed the world with mathematics as its language. The physical world is said to have mathematical properties that science has only begun to decode in the past few decades. The stars with their constellation patterns, the symmetrical patterns of human body, the water waves produced when one throws a pebble inside a pond and the sound waves that are produced by a musical instrument, all have some mathematical relation deeply embedded in them. Mathematics is language defined by nature, sound properties, and human discoveries.

   First of all, patterns in nature show the nature of mathematics. Whether they are spirals in cabbage, elliptical orbits of planets or patterns in cones and foliages of many evergreen trees, there is a pattern of mathematics in them. As observations and science have proven, again and again, the existence of Fibonacci sequence as a number pattern in nature. When one starts with one plus one and keeps adding the preceding numbers, they are bound to find what mathematics defines as “Fibonacci sequence” named after a mathematician. Whether its “petal counts” or bottom of a pine cone, they all show mathematical patterns and Fibonacci sequence to some extent. Next, is the theory of “pi” or the numbers 3.14 (decimals) and 22/7 (fraction). This theory is a mathematical relation of patterns also found throughout nature. Whether the “colors of a rainbow” or the musical notes and chords, whether mountain peaks or water waves; the ratio between the circumference of the circular object and its diameter has been observed to be the number “pi” on all occasions. As experiments have shown when one takes a needle and drops it on a piece of paper with lines, “the probability that the needle cuts the line is approximate “2/pi”. The same may be said for a cannonball fired on a pirate ship battle during a Hollywood movie take. The probability that the cannonball might land on a certain part of the ship should be approximate “2/pi”. Then, there are constants in mathematics that constitute to “thirty-two numbers” used in several mathematical equations. To define these constants, one may take a digital photograph and count the number of pixels in that photo. One would clearly observe that there are constants of three colors in this pixelated photo. These color constants are red, green and blue. Furthermore, the elliptical orbits of planets around the sun as well as around themselves show mathematical relations. Interplanetary and Intraplanetary orbits are what makes us predict days in a calendar. If it weren’t for these relations, the accounting cycles, economics, and finance tied to the calendar would be unpredictable year after year. Even the patterns of geometry as showed by Plato’s shapes indicate mathematical relations. Hence, patterns in nature show the nature of mathematics.

  Secondly, the sound and light properties also define mathematical relationships. Whether its scales and chords or frequency chart, Fibonacci sequence or the number pi is observed to be evident in these relations.  The ratio between the chords of a vibrating string in a musical instrument is observed to be the number pi. In fact, these relations exist in probability theories as for the number pi and stocks as the Fibonacci sequence to some extent. The ratio of colors in a rainbow is observed to show the number “Pi”. Different light spectrum may also be observed to have some mathematical relation. Electromagnetic waves that travel at the speed of light also show mathematical relations. Hence, sound and light properties also define mathematical relationships.

   Last but not least, human discoveries and inventions define mathematical relations. The law of falling bodies can be tied to the force of gravity where the speed of acceleration is directly proportional to object mass multiplied by gravity constant. One may say that the weight of an object has no relation to its acceleration due to gravity since air resistance is what makes their speed different. But at the same time, one may also prove that the mass of an object directly affects is acceleration due gravitational pull based on the formula a = mg (where the acceleration due to gravity is directly proportional to object mass times gravity constant). This relation may be further illustrated by calculating the time relation to acceleration in a cannonball moving across a flat and frictionless ramp. It is observed that “distance is directly proportional to the square of time” in this relation. These laws discovered by humans also have their applications in games and computer software. Programs and codes are written for a game and software clearly show mathematical relations. The greater than, equal to, constants all used in visual basic or HTML are all evidence of game programming. Electromagnetic waves that travel at the speed of light also have mathematical relations at an atomic level. The famous Einstein equation e equals mc^2, clearly shows that mathematical relation. The advantages of discovering these mathematical relations are in their applications. Television remote control and garage door openers are all a result of electromagnetic waves discovered by exploring the relation between electricity and magnetism in the form of mathematical relations. “Maxwell equations” that lead to the development of radio waves by “Marconi” ultimately saved many lives on the “Titanic”. These are the same mathematical relations in physics that lead to the discovery of “Higgs particle”. Hence, human discoveries and inventions define mathematical relations.

  In conclusion, mathematics is language defined by nature, sound properties and human discoveries. It is not just humans that understand numbers but some animals and mammals as well. In a research experiment on Lemur’s in a Lemur sanctuary, it was demonstrated that Lemur’s used numbers and solved puzzles based on mathematical relations to get their food. But mathematics also has its limits and boundaries. The unpredictable weather forecasts, stock markets, human psychology, and biology are all subjects that indicate the boundaries of mathematics as a “domain of absolute”. These mathematical boundaries, as well as relations, may be explored through consumer products like an abacus frame (Probability theory) as well as researched with a cannonball made of different alloys.

Mariana’s Trench: A Cause of Earthquakes and tsunami?

Finding the deepest point on the planet has been man’s dream ever since prehistoric times. Finding the lowest ground also meant getting closer to the center of the planet. Hence, a British ship “HMS Challenger” went on an expedition in the early 1800’s to map out all the oceans on the planet for their depth. In four years, the ship traveled as much as seventy thousand kilometers, “a quarter of the journey to the moon”. Some area in the western Pacific were recorded to be “4075 fathoms” or about 5 miles deep using an anchored rope for measurement. Some seventy-five years later, sonar technology came into existence to map out submarines. Hence, a research vessel set out on the same journey as Challenger to find the lowest point using sonar. They found a point in the western Pacific some seven miles deep and hence that point came to be known as “Challenger Deep” after the research vessel. This part of the ocean existed as a trench “some thirty times deeper than the empire state building is high”. Hence, it became to be known as “Mariana’s Trench” after the actual journey taken by “Triesk” a research vessel that ventured into the trench in 1953. With the increasing earthquakes and tsunamis in the 1900’s as well as the twenty-first century, the expeditions to the trench raised a “sixty thousand dollar” question. Is Mariana’s Trench a cause of Earthquakes and tsunamis? Science and scientists, geologists and oceanographers; all have tried to put the collected evidence together to come up with a hypothesis!

    The evidence to find the answer to the “sixty thousand dollars” question starts off with the expedition by the “Tries k”. The expedition into the trench pointed out some wrong assumptions about the ocean floor being a lifeless area. The pilot of the “Triesk” pointed out that even with the high pressure in the water above the trench surface some seven miles deep, they found a foot long flat fish. With pressure assumed to be some 16000 psi, the finding of life on the trench’s ocean floor itself raises a question about the environment of the trench and the geological features. Later in time, when all the earth’s ocean were mapped out with sonar data, they found a network of mountain and trenches, the largest geological feature on the planet. It was pointed out that the movements of similar mountain and trenches caused earthquakes in a phenomenon called “Plate Tectonics”. These plates or layers of earth’s crust move and grind as a result of flowing magma underneath causing Earthquakes. Then, the magnetic anomaly detector picked up magnetic rocks parallel to the ridges formed by minerals in the magma. These “Zebra striped” features pointed out in geological maps are thought to be the cause of Earth’s magnetic poles. Poles that reverse every thousand of years as magma is pushed up and old crust away from the surface during plate tectonics. Next, an expedition to find magma underneath the ocean picked up hydrothermal vents that warm up the ocean. This and other observations led to the development of “Subduction theory”. During plate tectonics, heavy plates in the eastern Pacific get pushed beneath the lighter plates and they take with them sediments and mineral formations for thousands of years. The water that the plates take with them underneath the ocean floor reacts with magma to form volcanoes. Hence, the volcanic islands in the process of “Subduction” – a process powerful enough to create the trench. As the plate goes underneath, it “digs into the mantle” where colliding plates form a trench or a “giant crease in the ocean floor” These subduction zones cause violent earthquakes and tsunamis. And though the trench is the “deepest subduction zone”, it is not thought to be responsible for any earthquakes. The answer comes after core sample is collected from the volcanic hills of Mariana’s trench. The rocks happen to be “serpentine” a weak rock compared to volcanic rocks that grind and cause earthquakes. This mud type rocks can “easily be scratched”. Hence, the lack of friction during subduction and no earthquakes. Furthermore, scientists believe that some millions of years ago, the Pacific plate went underneath the “Philippine plate” and continues to move towards Mariana’s trench – “its graveyard”. This trench also called “the world’s largest recycling plant” devours earth’s crusts as confirmed by data from GPS transmitters on western Pacific islands. Hence the full explanation for the existence of “Mariana’s trench”.

    Since the sixty thousand dollar question and the theory behind the “existence of Mariana’s trench” are assumed to be solved through the subduction hypothesis, another question rises to take its place! Will the trench cause earthquakes and tsunamis in the future. Core samples from the trench are hypothesized to be “sixty million years old”.  The rocks are also heavier than any other rocks on the ocean floor since “the crusts formed over magma in the western Pacific eventually cooled and became heavier”. This heavy ocean floor which gets heavier in the years to come could possibly replace the mudrock or serpentine rock in the trench eventually causing friction and earthquakes in the future not mentioned in the documentary below.

    In terms of economics and material applications, Mariana’s trench along with the research technology involved to find the answer to the “sixty thousand dollar question” creates new possibilities for innovation and product development. Transmitters used on western Pacific could also be placed in the trenches and subduction zones to record underwater activities caused by plate tectonics. These transmitters could also include battery powered seismographs anchored to a floating receptor on the ocean’s surface to record earthquake activity. The receptor could transmit a violent shake in subduction zones to the satellites and finally to earthquake and tsunami warning centers. This method could be faster than observing tsunami waves via satellite or recording earthquake activity via seismographs on land rather than underneath water. With the discovery of new materials such as graphene (100 times stronger and lighter than steel), the transmitters or seismographs could be placed in an enclosed case like an airplane’s black box to withstand the extreme underwater pressure (some “9600 psi” on Mariana’s trench Surface). Furthermore, the same material (Graphene) could be used in cargo containers on container ships. Recovery of containers from sunk or damaged cargo ships can only be successful if containers can withstand water pressure. Next, lifeboats on cargo ships and cruise ships could be transformed into a submarine or research like a vessel. Since many lifeboats sink in the crashing waves of the oceans during the storm, a lifeboat that travels underneath the waves rather than over it makes much more sense. Also, underwater cameras and research vessels could be made from graphene making it lighter and stronger to search for lost historic ships and gold worth billions sunk during World Wars. Not to mention, flatfish could be researched and experimented upon to come up with materials for scuba diving suit and swimwear for extreme underwater pressures. After all, it is one of the very few living things that can exist on the ocean floors of “Mariana’s Trench” under extreme pressures equivalent to “9600 psi”.  Moreover, if serpentine rocks or mud volcano is found in abundance in Mariana trench and elsewhere, could it not be used as a lubricant for other subduction zones that actually cause earthquakes? After all, if subduction zones trigger earthquakes and earthquakes trigger volcanoes to erupt both underneath the ocean and on the islands, could the volcanoes not disrupt the magnetic field of the earth which is an assumption to be a result of magnetic rocks on ridges underneath the ocean floor?