Earthworms & Soil

One may write a book,

Or catch them with a hook.

All it takes is one stare or look,

Research them for landscaping or cook!


Water pumps: Applications

Water pumps are mechanical and electrical machines to pump water in and out of a site. In a mechanical water pump, water is pumped from the pipes submerged in a drain or a sewer. This water is pumped in by a mechanical engine of the water pump that creates a suction. The water then goes through the mechanical engine that consumes petrol or gas to run at its peak. The water from the engine is then released to a safe location via a network of pipes or hoses. These pipes or hoses are connected to each other with a hose fitting. Electrical pumps, on the other hand, are used as submersibles. The pump is plugged in an extension cord and lowered into a space filled with water. The water goes through the pump and out of the network of hoses connected to the electrical pump. They have mainly used to waterproof a construction site or stop flooding.

   Water pumps at construction sites are used for existing water features such as wetlands, streams, watersheds. flood plains etc. In a residential construction, the water pump is usually used to keep water away from the foundation of the building. A structure built in a center of a terrain with a slope is more likely to gather water at its foundation. This water then affects the load-bearing capacity of the structure as the soil underneath the foundation retains more moisture than needed. This water is usually pumped out using an electrical pump away from the construction site on to sewer, drains, fields, and open spaces. Water that gathers in the form of a swamp around a site usually creates mud and unsuitable conditions to move around or operate machinery. These machinery and equipment include Bulldozers, Forklift equipment (For Lumber), Cranes etc. Transporting materials like lumber, steel columns and roof trusses in and around the perimeter of a structure becomes a hazard. Not to mention the damage caused by water to the building materials lying around the perimeter of the structure. Water pumps may also be used along with heavy-duty vacuum suction for waterproofing structure interior. These vacuums may be used on laminated veneer lumber as well as small crawl spaces like an elevator under construction to avoid damage done using a snow shovel for example. Underlayment and plastic blankets may also be used to cover structure elements exposed to snow and rain. Waterproofing is also done before concrete pours over to avoid air bubbles from forming in concrete which leads to cracks and damage as a result of severe weather. Hence, water pumps on constructions sites are essential tools of the trade.

   Water pumps may also be used to contain flooding. Whether tsunami, hurricane or a basement flood. Water pumps can be used to safely pump the water out of the target locations. Usually, water pumps for flood control are near sea or ocean shorelines. These pump facilities are the size of a factory. They use electricity to operate and keep the water away from land. Without electricity, these pumps can not function. For example, the one used during hurricane Katrina in New Orleans failed as the flood water filled the parts of the structure where pumps were located cutting electricity and making the pumps in operational. Water pumps to control basement flooding are a totally different story. Electric submersible water pumps may be used to pump out water in a basement flood. These pumps may run fully submerged in water up to several feet deep as long as the wiring of the pump can handle. Though basement floods are usually controlled using drain systems and gravel to soak rain and flood water around a perimeter of a structure, water pumps do come handy in extreme situations.

   In conclusion, waterproofing construction sites and basement floods are done using water pumps. Though these pumps are mainly used for the applications above, they are also used for firefighting and Irrigation. A structure with a handy mechanical water pump may be successful in fighting the flammable fire to a certain extent. In a rural and isolated area where emergency response takes time to arrive, these pumps could be a lifesaver. Even small forest fires may be controlled using these pumps. They may also be connected to a fire hydrant to provide water in an emergency. Water for field irrigation either for gardening or agriculture may be done using these water pumps. Extension hoses connected to these pumps may be spread across a field like a network. These pumps may act as sprinklers in places which otherwise would take hours to water. Further innovations in science and technology may prove beneficial to water pump design as well as economics related to its applications.

Sinkholes: Fact or Fiction?

    Sinkholes consume property, cars, and people. Though sinkholes are quite common and threaten many regions of the world. As explained in the documentary, fossils from sea level fluctuations compress as part of the soil over time creating soluble and soft soil. This soluble soil allows acidic water to enter the cracks and void spaces and reach the “eroded” limestone underneath. Globally limestone is very common and susceptible to water which in turn create many sinkholes near the surface. Sinkholes are destructive, their causes are relatively impossible to fix and have various economic impacts.

    First of all, Sinkholes create destruction in many ways such as the following. Structures, roads, and railroads built above are all susceptible to these sinkholes. In “sinkhole alleys”, symptoms start to appear as cracks, driveway collapse and floods resulting from water from the caves. Many homeowners don’t have a place to go if they were to leave their uninsured property and vehicles. As a result, these sinkholes become worse destroying property and killing homeowners that have little finance to arrange another place on a more habitable land. Hence, sinkholes not only destroy their properties but also claim many lives. Buildings built on gypsum a soluble rock dissolves even faster than regular soil surface in a sinkhole-prone land. Older structures develop cracks that are usually filled up with plaster to solve the issue. But in the long run, it only makes problems worse. Similarly, salt deposits underneath soil dissolve even faster as water for irrigation is pumped through and over these deposits. Salt caverns have created several sinkholes due to cavern fracture leading to just that much damage and lawsuits as a result of the damage. Sinkholes not only destroy land, property, roads but also derail railroads.

   Causes of sinkholes include poorly designed drainage systems, damming sea and melting snow. Globally, there are millions of acres in many countries that increase sinkholes due to soluble soils. Human created sinkholes due to mining in sinkhole-prone areas, oil, and natural gas drilling or even drilling for salt not only destroys properties and land but also brings lawsuits and ultimate business closures. In fact, they can create further hazards especially when flammable and explosive elements are involved. More relevant examples include gas stations built on sinkhole-prone soils as well as natural gas pipeline running through residential and commercial areas. Natural gas, petrol, diesel etc all add up a disaster when they react in an unpredictable way due to sinkholes.

    Economic impacts include more research and development teams to analyze sinkholes. Oil spill cleanup crews and fire trucks all come in to play. Insurance companies and Geotechnical teams all play a big role in bringing solutions to the sinkhole community. Ground penetrating radar maps are already being used to detect void spaces and displaced soils round properties and roads. Hence, sinkholes have various economic impacts.

    In conclusion, sinkholes are not only destructive but devastating.  As the documentary below suggests solutions from the viewers are open to debate, one of the solutions could be using concrete caisson type structure foundation that leads all the way to the limestone base instead of grout. The water in the tunnels underneath the limestone may be pumped out using flood water pumps which could prevent any dissolving of limestone from underneath. Sinkhole prone surface soils may also be spread with a base chemical that neutralizes the acidic water making its way through the cracks and caverns to the limestone below. Since the limestone now, is stable with water underneath removed as well as the acidic rainwater neutralized, the flood water or irrigation water simply hits the limestone and fills up the void soil spaces over it like a water tank. This could be a “recycling” type solution to the sinkhole problem. Finally, waterproof drones with cameras may be used instead of divers to map out a network of water tunnels that could be initially detected with a stronger ground penetrating radar device. The best solution is “prevention” rather than cure. Home buyers may decide to get the property land surveyed for slopes, change in height and ground elevations which increase water accumulation at the foundation and increases the magnitude and speed of the sinkhole. Home buyers may either get land surveyors or survey the land themselves with some basic survey knowledge and instruments like the theodolite to find point elevation. If the soil is tested for soil plasticity before building a home on top or buying one, it could save homeowners their life earnings and savings. If one is reluctant to go through a geotechnical lab for soil tests, he/she may also perform the same tests via labs and equipment available in colleges.